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It was an expensive proposition that was supported even at the depth of the Great Depression. Above all, these adolescents had been guided through school for long periods of time while being encouraged to be independent in their many school activities and choices, a combination that fostered creativity and underwrote optimism about the future.

The high school attached itself to the values of independence that Americans had come to value for themselves, while it carefully supervised its charges. The high school, with its elaborate youth culture, was a critical part of how second-generation immigrants were incorporated into the US mainstream.

By the last third of the 20th century, the US high school had produced several generations of graduates and became a familiar and unifying family experience. Parents looked back on their own school life as a guide to what they might expect from their adolescent children. While adolescents could present special problems associated with sexuality, high schools also helped to guide parents through these shoals.


The high school served as a guardian institution, keeping children off the streets and under the supervision of nurses, guidance counsellors and sometimes mental health professionals as well as coaches and other mentors. Parents, including immigrants new to the high-school experience, had also learned how to handle their sometimes unruly teenagers. Until the s, many high schools also monitored sexuality by expelling pregnant girls and those suspected of sexual activity from school, thus enforcing guidelines that set sexual limits and defined a common propriety.

By sponsoring proms and other social events, schools set norms of gender behaviour. If high schools helped parents to handle their teenage children, the peer society of school helped adolescents handle their parents, since it provided them with an excuse for staying out after school and on weekends.

And it legitimated various kinds of dating activity. Going to sports events or musical performances, working on the newspaper or in a club occupied non-school time with friends, effectively keeping parents at bay. It was an excellent bargain. One that the mid-century psychologist Erik Erikson believed provided a moratorium on adulthood as adolescents learned to define who they were and what they believed in. They were at once dependent and independent, not children and not adults.

Erikson took some of the same qualities that had inspired Hall and the founders of the juvenile court and the US high school, and attached a new label to the seeking for affiliation and for excitement that was associated with adolescents. B y the end of the 20th century, however, the special role of adolescence in US culture began to fall apart.

7 Ways Childhood Trauma Follow You Into Adulthood

Global competition was making skills acquired in high school obsolete as higher levels of schooled certification became necessary in the workplace. The longtime educational advantage of the US and the competence of its students was challenged as other nations prospered and offered their children schooling that was often superior when measured by international scores.

New immigrants, who began to arrive in the US in large numbers in the s, were less well-integrated into high schools as schools re-segregated, leaving Latino immigrants, for example, in underperforming schools. High schools, long a glory of US education and a product of democratic culture, had lost their central social role. Graduation, once the final step for most Americans on the road to work and steady relationships leading to marriage, no longer marked a significant end point on the way to maturity.

It provided neither an effective transition to adulthood nor a valuable commodity for aspiring youth, and was an impediment to those who dropped out. Going to college became a necessary part of middle-class identity, and this complicated the completion of adolescence for everyone. Now that college was held up as essential to economic success, the failure to go to college portended an inadequate adulthood.

The extension of necessary schooling into the 20s and sometimes even into the 30s strongly attenuated the relationship between a stage of physical maturation puberty and the social experiences to which it had been attached in the concept of adolescence. And active sexuality, which had been held at bay by a high-school life defined by dating, now intruded earlier and earlier into the lives of the young, while marriage was increasingly delayed. Adolescence was no longer an adequate description of this long postponement of adulthood. It never had been more than an in-between stage, meant to comprise a moratorium of a few years.

Americans floundered to find a term to cover the new postponement of maturity. As the upper boundary on adolescence disappeared, the lower boundary was also shifting. Over the course of the 20th century, the age of sexual maturity for girls had steadily declined. Set in the mid-teens early in the century, it reached an average of By the s, the internet made all previous attempts to protect the innocence of children from premature knowledge of adult matters obsolete.

Initial attempts to attach age-appropriate labels to movies and music or keep risky television programmes to later hours became irrelevant as the computer and, later, hand-held devices opened up the world to the eyes of children whenever they chose. Extending the protections of childhood to a later age, as adolescence had for much of the 20th century, now made no sense since childhood itself was no longer innocent and easily protected. And trying to shield youngsters from responsibility for certain kinds of crimes that were related to their age , as the juvenile court tried to do, also seemed beside the point.

Smoking and loitering on the streets to play dice had been an alarming expression of rambunctious youth in the early 20th century. By the end of that century, Americans and the world witnessed teenagers killing other teenagers, as they did at Columbine High School in Colorado.

It no longer describes the period of training required to function as an adult in the 21st century, nor does it distinguish the boundary between the knowledge of children from those who have reached puberty. For parents, adolescence is an untrustworthy way to understand how their teenage children mature: they cannot clearly connect the sexual practices of their young progeny to stable mating in marriage, nor can parents see how schooling during adolescence will lead their offspring to satisfactory adult work. The idea of a tentative moratorium that gets resolved once teenagers create stable identities seems far-fetched, since the identities of even those in their 20s and sometimes their 30s are still in flux.

Suddenly there was someone else to think of and consider in every decision you made.

Adolescence is no longer a bridge between childhood and adult life | Aeon Essays

I am 53, and one moment stands out in my mind. It was around , when my mother had to move from one assisted living facility to another. She was suffering from Alzheimer's at the time, so in a nutshell, I had to lie to her to get her in the car. The new facility had a lock-down unit, which was then the only practical option for her.

It was not the first time I had told her a "white lie" in order to get her to do something, the way you might tell a child. But it was the only time I can recall when she realized I had lied to her, and had tricked her into leaving her apartment. She gave me a look of realization that I will never forget.

I was once married, but never had children. I suppose if I had ever had children, I would have "become an adult" at some point during the parenting experience. Maybe there are certain "micro-betrayals" that go along with being responsible for someone. I don't know. I prefer to remain ignorant about that. My mother died in But for people who do, it often seems to be that flip-the-switch moment. But things that can be written in shorthand can be written in longhand as well. Most change is gradual. I am 27 years old, married, living on my own, and employed as a manager at a successful hotel company.

I expected all of these things, age, marriage, career, to trigger the feeling. Looking back, I think I was asking the wrong question. I don't think I spent a lot of time as a child or teenager. I have worked since I was 13 and I worked with other kids my age. Our parents were immigrants who made little more than us. We were our families' translators since childhood. Who have to care for sick parents as children, or who lose them at a young age? Both are privileges.

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It seems most see being an adult as behaving in a more reserved way and as St. What field did THAT comment come from? I wondered. I had to consider for quite a while before I understood his train of thought; I have never had children by choice , therefore I must still be one myself. I disagree with his vision; I see myself as an adult.

After all, my students are a fraction of my age, my marriage is rocky, my hair has begun to grey, and I pay all my own bills: ergo I am an adult. My knees hurt, I worry about retirement, my parents are elderly and frail, and I now drive when we go places together; therefore I must be an adult.

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Independence can become loneliness. Responsibility can become stress. Mintz writes that adulthood has been devalued in culture in some ways. Maybe an ambivalence over whether someone feels like an adult is partially an ambivalence over whether they even want to be an adult. But he sees inspiration, and possibility, in old Hollywood visions of adulthood, in Cary Grant and Katherine Hepburn. I am not in charge of trying to make life other than what it is. What adulthood means in a society is an ocean fed by too many rivers to count.

It can be legislated, but not completely.

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Social norms change, people opt out of traditional roles, or are forced to take them on way too soon. You can track the trends, but trends have little bearing on what one person wants and values. Society can only define a life stage so far; individuals still have to do a lot of the defining themselves.

Imperfect, irregular, but indubitably part of a greater whole. The college-admissions process is so fraught with hysteria, many parents attempt to cheat their kids into elite institutions. As the impeachment inquiry intensifies, some associates of the president predict that his already erratic behavior is going to get worse. The country is entering a new and precarious phase, in which the central question about President Donald Trump is not whether he is coming unstrung, but rather just how unstrung he is going to get.

The boiling mind of Trump has spawned a cottage industry for cognitive experts who have questioned whether he is, well, all there.

My Transition from Childhood to Adulthood Essay

But as the impeachment inquiry barrels ahead on Capitol Hill, several associates of the president, including former White House aides, worry that his behavior is likely to get worse. Angered by the proceedings, unencumbered by aides willing to question his judgment, and more and more isolated in the West Wing, Trump is apt to lash out more at enemies imagined and real, these people told me. Conduct that has long been unsettling figures to deteriorate as Trump comes under mounting stress. The unicorn massacre unfolding today is exactly the opposite of what happened in Both then and now , consumer-tech companies spent lavishly on advertising and struggled to find a path to profit.

Both then and now , companies that bragged about their ability to change the world admitted suddenly that they were running out of money.