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Labour supply arrangements in the Philippine seafaring industry - Pia, J. Sanley Abila. This thesis explores the occupational socialisation of Filipino merchant marine officer cadets through their experiences of maritime education and training MET. The socialisation of the cadets is contextualised within the broad aim of the global and national regulations of MET to develop competent seafarers.

However, the academic literature is silent about the experiences of officer cadets of their education and training especially those coming from NLSCs. Using multi-modal data collection tools such as in-depth interviews, field notes and document analysis, this qualitative study examines the experiences of the current and former cadets under the sponsored cadetship programs SCPs in the Philippines in order to analyse first-hand experiences of MET.

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The key findings of this thesis are: a SCPs are officer training platforms developed mainly by shipping companies to meet their sea-based labour needs and intended to comply with the Philippine standards of MET; b there are a variety of SCPs from which four models are described in this study; c SCPs utilise a ritualistic socialisation of cadets in college campus as key mechanism of training; and d there is a diversity of shipboard training experiences of cadets ranging from well-planned training programs to the complete absence of programs.

The thesis concludes the following: a the quality of training experienced by the cadets is characterised as a highly regulated and reinforced professionalization process intent on producing certificated officers; b the SCPs are routes for migrant work for mainly male Filipinos being guaranteed a post-collegiate sea-based employment by their shipping patrons; c the socialisation of the cadets is influenced by processes of globalisation embodied in the global standards of MET enforced locally, and the role of international shipping companies in funding the recruitment and training of cadets as well as offering them post-training employment; and d in spite of global and local standards of MET, there is no common or shared understanding of the notion of seafaring competence among the trainers, which have affected the way competencies were taught and assessed.

Back to top. Mohab Abou-Elkawam. This research study offers a contribution to the field of framing environmental policies in several ways.

National Security and Maritime Piracy in Nigeria: A Sociological Discourse

First, it makes explicit the ways in which a nomadic professional group such as seafarers frame and interact with the growing demand to protect the environment in general and the marine environment in particular. Due to the nature of their profession, this group is able to roam the world and compare the effectiveness of environmental regulations in various countries. The shipping industry is composed of different types of shipping companies, some of which can be described as more environmentally aware than others, an issue which would affect the frames of seafarers regarding compliance to environmental regulations as discussed in this study.

Moreover, this research opens up a social qualitative inquiry in areas scarcely attended to by previous scholars especially when focusing on the relationships and tensions between seafarers and their personal and professional commitments to their global work place; the marine environment. This study argues that such differences not only impact on the social construction of seafarers regarding environmental protection but also affects their framing of daily compliance practices as well.

This allows us to review the institutional and instrumental policies carried out by different ship owners in different parts of the world and verify how this impacts on the compliance practices of this professional group in the context of a demanding and challenging regulatory environment.

Click here to view full thesis. Integration on board, largely work-oriented and subject to a racialised hierarchy, favours less the social aspect of integration. The limited involvement in both contexts mutually reflects fringe belonging. Under conditions of high mobility, cross-border practices are constrained inasmuch as they are facilitated through access to communication technologies. The ties of reciprocity under extensive kin relations similarly accentuate the strain affecting connection at home. Such conflicting outcomes undermine the connectivity and continuity of social relations that is purportedly enhanced by linking across borders.

Such ties are nonetheless employed as a strategy of counteracting labour insecurities despite the burden arising from such tenuous links. This thesis concludes that seafarers evince a form of transactional transnationalism such that they inhabit both worlds only if on board. Ngwatung Akamangwa.

Ganging up on Jolly Roger in Asia : International cooperation and maritime piracy

This thesis explores the practice of complying with environmental regulations in the global shipping industry and examines the impact on workers. Using a case study example of a large and reputable ship management company, I discuss the understandings that onshore and sea-going staff at the company have of policies and practices in relation to environmental protection.

The case study approach used here involves ethnographic fieldwork aboard two container ships and at the company premises. Three research techniques are employed: semi-structured interviews, observations and documentary analysis. Two significant findings emerge: that while environmental compliance has increased the workload on board, ship staff do not consider this change to affect the quality of their work and life on board the ship; and that seafarers are more likely to suffer from stress when complying with environmental regulations but are disinclined to worry about the potential for occupational exposures.

The study also found a correlation in the understandings of both managers and seafarers at the company about the relevance of environmental requirements in general and of the company environmental management system in particular, which played a critical role in terms of how these requirements were operationalized aboard the ship. This study contributes to current understandings of the practice and impact of corporate compliance with environmental regulations.

Nippin Anand. The research question is focused on how employers and seafarers understand the changing nature of work and skills as a result of technological advances. This question will be answered within the wider context of global competition and the competitive reasons to promote new technologies in workplaces. The methods of data collection involve qualitative interviews with shipping company managers, training staff and seafarers.

The findings reveal a significant mismatch between the competitive reasons to implement new technologies and its un intended consequences on the professional identity of workers.


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More specifically, the thesis highlights the tensions between management strategies aimed at profit maximization, cost control and safety concerns and the myriad perceptions of workers based on their understanding of the seafaring profession. The thesis provides a fresh perspective of the existing theories of technology in the context of global competition.

The likelihood that natural resource extraction will deliver benefits to inhabitants of local communities which host the extraction venture has become a salient point in the sub-Saharan African context. Despite the prevalence of the resource curse in Africa, international financial institutions, national governments, leaders and inhabitants of the region continue to see the extraction of natural resource as a route out of poverty, especially for local communities which host extraction activities.

Fenomén pirátství v současném světě

This thesis focuses on the case of Ghana, a new addition to the bloc of oil-producing countries to assess whether expectations of resource benefits by inhabitants of the oil region will materialise. The exploration of the social, economic and environmental impact of oil drilling and exploitation on the study community revealed that contrary to expectations of benefits, no beneficial outcomes accrued to inhabitants of the community.

There were instead reports of challenges with fishing activities such as decreased fish catch levels, longer time spent at sea and the presence of seaweed which affected fishing activities negatively. Syamantak Bhattacharya. This thesis investigates the impact of the International Safety Management ISM Code on the management of occupational health and safety in the global maritime industry. The Code - which introduced regulated self-regulation to the industry in - is seen as a major instrument to safeguard seafarers from workplace hazards and a mechanism to counter the consequence of economic globalisation on the regulation in the maritime industry.

However, its effectiveness has been widely debated.

Is Southeast Asia home to the most dangerous waters in the world?

A case study approach is used in this study to examine the operation of the Code in two shipping organisations involving ethnographic fieldwork onboard ships and at company offices using semi-structured interview, observation and documentary analysis as the research techniques. The study specifically looked into the factors that influenced the perceptions of the managers and seafarers on the operation of three central elements of the ISM Code: risk assessment, incident reporting and audit and review.

My findings showed significant differences in the experiences of operation of the Code of the managers and seafarers in the organisations studied and revealed that although the two organisations implemented the ISM Code in theory there was a considerable gap between its purpose and what it achieved in practice. Significantly it indicated that seafarers' fear of job security, low-trust work environment and lack of organisational support were some of the main impeding factors for seafarers' participation in the management of occupational health and safety.

Further analysis revealed that the organisational context and the employment relations affecting seafarers, as well as their social relations onboard ships and between the managers and seafarers in the companies studied were not conducive to a participatory style of management of occupational health and safety. The thesis argues that to be effective self-regulation of occupational health and safety management - such as envisaged by the ISM Code - requires a participatory approach.

However, the thesis demonstrates that the preconditions that have been shown to be necessary to achieve this in land-based workplaces are much reduced or absent from the maritime situation which undermines the potential for the effective operation of the ISM Code. This thesis explores the health, safety and well-being experiences of seafarers in relation to the organisation of work and employment at sea. In particular, the most substantial adverse well-being outcomes were apparent at both an early and late stage of a tour of duty, whilst safety outcomes were seen to significantly improve during the last week of a tour of duty for seafarers onboard offshore vessels.

Further qualitative analysis revealed some strong associations between poor occupational health, safety and well-being experiences and the ways in which employment is organised at sea, and indicated a failure to address such associations in the arrangements in place to manage the health, safety and well-being of seafarers during their periods of employment. In particular, it indicated that there were substantial mismatches between the experiences of seafarers and the requirements of them determined by their shore-side management, and found that the reporting mechanisms that might demonstrate this were inadequate.

Semi-structured interviews based on the Negative Acts Questionnaire were conducted with seafarers and managerial personnel from one multinational and one Indian company. The seafarers were drawn from all ranks.


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Seafarers encountering ill-treatment can choose to exit their situation, raise their voice or remain silent. The findings showed that while support structures such as grievance procedures and union membership existed for seafarers experiencing ill-treatment, the majority of seafarers chose to remain silent because of complex interactions between a variety of workplace features.

Fears included job insecurity, concern for career advancement, fear of blacklisting and personal financial concerns. Those seafarers that did choose to escape their situations found that there could be repercussions on their finances and their career ambitions, or that exercising their voice resulted in a reshuffle of seafarers but nothing of import changed. In addition, the industry norms of short-term contracts, the purported manning crisis and a race to the bottom mentality force seafarers to be highly insecure in their jobs and encourage them to accept their situation until they can escape it.

Roderick Galam. It focuses on the experiences of Filipino women married to Filipino seamen and specifically examines the spatiality and temporality of their gender identity, agency and subjectivity.

Through the concept of social imaginary, it reconceptualises the role of these women in migration and considers them to play a more active role in migration processes than is suggested by the label 'left behind'. How the women were constrained by and creatively responded to their material and social relations not least those obtaining in the alternating absence and presence of their husbands is approached from a generative theory of subject formation. These analyses show the embeddedness of the women in material and social contexts including ties of reciprocity and indebtedness.

The thesis concludes with a synthesis of and further reflection on the implications of the main arguments of the study. Victor Oyaro Gekara. Abstract: The acceleration of economic globalisation, over the past few decades, has put the role of the state, as an important actor in the management of the global economy, in the spotlight. The question that continues to dominate the globalisation debate is whether or not individual states, operating within a neoliberal paradigm, are in a position to effectively regulate the economic activities of powerful multinational capital, manage domestic economies and protect labour.

The main aim of this thesis is to assess how effectively nation states can respond to globalisation and mitigate negative impacts such as the decline of domestic industries and local labour markets while maximising the benefits. Shipping is one of the most globalised industries and one where capital is highly mobile. The challenges facing nation states in their attempt to manage domestic economies and protect local industries are therefore well illustrated in the relationship between the state and multinational shipping capital.

Worldwide Maritime Piracy Update

The UK, along with other Traditional Maritime Nations, has been dramatically affected by the globalisation of the industry. Following a huge decline in the UK's merchant shipping fleet, the UK government has attempted to respond, by way of a tonnage tax. This is primarily a tax incentive to encourage ship-owners to register and operate their ships in the UK. It assumes that piracy increases the cost of international maritime transport through an increase in insecurity regarding goods deliveries and as a result regional economies are losing money and competitiveness as well.

The first part of this paper deals with definition of maritime piracy and maritime terrorism. It also outlines types of piracy. Subjects of the second part are the history perspective of piracy and chosen countries, the development of piracy in the Gulf of Guinea in the recent time and initiatives that are being implemented by the regional economies and third parties to combat piracy.

The third and the final part of this paper sets out the possible effects of maritime piracy in the chosen region insurance rates, loss of ship and cargo, ransom money etc. In fact piracy has been the first example of universal jurisdiction. Nevertheless today the international community is facing many problems to try pirates. The first part of the thesis deals with the basic concepts of piracy, the various definitions of piracy and the differences between the elements of piracy and those of terrorism which are notably distinct from each other.

This thesis is based mainly on this distinction. The notion of piracy extends to too many branches.