It is a man-made problem mainly caused by human waste material, release of poisonous gases and other chemical pollutants from the industry, agricultural pollutants like pesticides, and chemical fertilizers, pollutants by automobiles and dumping of chemical and nuclear wastes, etc.
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It has led to a worldwide environmental crisis. In many ways, it has changed both the individual and social ways of life. The main sources of air pollution in India and elsewhere are mineral dust and gases, automobiles, thermal power plants and industries.
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Any contamination in the air may not only cause many diseases and loss of vision but can also disturb the whole atmospheric system. Air pollution can also cause acid rain which damages soil, vegetation and aquatic life of the region. The heavy use of automobiles causes pollution and smog from automobile emissions. This has become a serious problem in almost all the countries—developed and developing.
The bad urban air bums the eyes, damages lung tissues and increases the levels of lead and other poisons in the human body and agricultural products. It is not known how many deaths occur nationally because of air pollution.
Air pollution caused massive smog in London in killing some 4, people. Contamination of water from any external source that makes it harmful to life is known as water pollution. But these increased emission of CFCs, bromine, chlorine led to the depletion of ozone layer.
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Thus the result is global warming, change in climatic conditions, melting of glaciers, increase in sea level etc. It has also heightened the risk of skin cancer caused by the harmful emission of sunlight. Acid Rain Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide and other chemicals and pollutants react with water molecules in atmosphere to generate the highly harmful rain called acid rain. These pollutants are end product of the various factories, automobiles and many industrial or manufacturing plants. Pollutants which are the harmful end products of various factories, industries, plants and other establishments are carelessly discharged into the atmosphere leading to pollution of air.
Acid rain thus falling in ground also causes water pollution affecting the water species and land pollution affecting the natural balance of the soil thus degrading the quality of the crops grown. Tags 7 causes of air pollution, causes of air pollution in points, causes of air pollution wikipedia, natural causes of air pollution, what are the 3 main causes of air pollution? Taiba on January 12, at pm.
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Very Useful Reply. Ayswerya nayak on March 19, at am. Good Reply. Teresa on March 27, at pm. In the 27,March, Was very useful for me I learn something new Reply. Temperature changes of even one to two degrees Celsius can cause significant changes in organism metabolism and other adverse cellular biology effects. Principal adverse changes can include rendering cell walls less permeable to necessary osmosis , coagulation of cell proteins , and alteration of enzyme metabolism.
These cellular level effects can adversely affect mortality and reproduction.
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A large increase in temperature can lead to the denaturing of life-supporting enzymes by breaking down hydrogen - and disulphide bonds within the quaternary structure of the enzymes. Decreased enzyme activity in aquatic organisms can cause problems such as the inability to break down lipids , which leads to malnutrition. Increased water temperature can also increase the solubility and kinetics of metals, which can increase the uptake of heavy metals by aquatic organisms.
This can lead to toxic outcomes for these species, as well as build up of heavy metals in higher trophic levels in the food chain , increasing human exposures via dietary ingestion. In limited cases, warm water has little deleterious effect and may even lead to improved function of the receiving aquatic ecosystem. This phenomenon is seen especially in seasonal waters and is known as thermal enrichment.
An extreme case is derived from the aggregational habits of the manatee , which often uses power plant discharge sites during winter.
Solutions to water pollution: how to improve water quality?
Projections suggest that manatee populations would decline upon the removal of these discharges. Releases of unnaturally cold water from reservoirs can dramatically change the fish and macroinvertebrate fauna of rivers, and reduce river productivity. In Australia , where many rivers have warmer temperature regimes, native fish species have been eliminated, and macroinvertebrate fauna have been drastically altered.
This may be mitigated by designing the dam to release warmer surface waters instead of the colder water at the bottom of the reservoir. When a power plant first opens or shuts down for repair or other causes, fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by the abrupt change in water temperature, either an increase or decrease, known as "thermal shock". In the United States , about 75 to 82 percent of thermal pollution is generated by power plants.
Some facilities use once-through cooling OTC systems which do not reduce temperature as effectively as the above systems. During warm weather, urban runoff can have significant thermal impacts on small streams, as storm water passes over hot parking lots, roads and sidewalks. Storm water management facilities that absorb runoff or direct it into groundwater , such as bioretention systems and infiltration basins , can reduce these thermal effects.
These related systems for managing runoff are components of an expanding urban design approach commonly called green infrastructure. Retention basins stormwater ponds tend to be less effective at reducing runoff temperature, as the water may be heated by the sun before being discharged to a receiving stream.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved Boston Globe. Water Pollution - Causes, Effects and Control. New Delhi: New Age International. Ecology of Estuaries: Anthropogenic Effects.